Vol. 3, Issue 1 (2018)
Isolation and identification and phytochemical screening of endophytes from medicinal plants
Author(s): Uma Maheswari N, Saranya P
Abstract: Medicinal plants are known to harbour endophytic fungi that are believed to be associated with the production of pharmaceutical products. Therefore, it is important to explore endophytic mycoflora in the medicinal plants.In the present study, 15 medicinal plants were selected for the presence of endophytic community. The Medicinal plants, were collected from STET Herbal Garden, STET Women’s college, Mannargudi, Thiruvarur (DT), Tamil Nadu. Medicinal plants namely, Alpinia galangal, Ludwigia perennis, Ocimum basilicum, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Cissus quadrangulaircs, Bryophyllum pinnatum, Piper betle, Sansevieria laxburghii, Phyllanthus acidus, Cymbopogon citrates, Sauropus audrogynus, Rauvolfia tetraphyhlla, Clitoria ternatea, Tridax prochumbens, Ficus nervosa. Endophytic fungi were isolated from the leaves of above said medicinal plants by Lactophenol Cotton Blue Staining techniques and identified using standard manuals. Isolated and identified endophytic fungi are such as Aspergillus oryzae, A. flavus, A. fucus, A. fumicates, A.niger, A.terreus, A. nidulans, A. rugulosus, Alternaria tenuis, Rhizopus species, Penicillum citrinum, P. javanicum, Helminthosporum, H. oryzae, Fusarium, Bipolaris. Maximum number of endophytic fungi belonging to the class Deutromycetes (9 genera), Ascomycetes (2 genera), Phycomycetes (2 genera) and Hypomycetes (3 genera) were recorded. Totally 8 species of Aspergillus was dominant in the medicinal plants followed by 2 species of Penicillum were recorded. In Phytochemical screening, all the compounds are present in Tridax procumbens and Ficus nervosa, colonization frequency was high in Piper betle, (77.27) relative percentage occurrence was high in Bryophyllum pinnatum (43.55%), endophytic infection rate are highly present in are Ficus nervosa (57.14%) detected in the medicinal plants.