Damages caused by Citrullus Colocynthis extracts on larvae of Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes
Nosiba S Hamid, Mutaman A Kahil, Nasir A Ibrahim
Mosquitoes are the primary vectors accountable for the organic transmission of lethal sicknesses such as, dengue, malaria, filaria, chikungunia, Japanese encephalitis etc. The aim of current study was to evaluate the damages caused by Citrullus colocynthis extracts on the larvae of Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes on the morphological bases. Larvae of A. arabiensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus were collected from Tayba village, Gezira State, Sudan, whereas Citrullus colocynthis fruit pulps (FP) and seeds (CS) were collected from within Wad Medani City, Gezira State. C. colocynthis FP and CS were shade dried at room temperature and submitted to ethanol and acetone extracts. The susceptibility of A. arabiensis and Cx quinquefasciatus to FP and CS extracts followed the WHO instruction. The mortality of FP-ethanol extract at concentrations of 17.39-87.13 ppm were 30-90% on Cx. quinquefasciatus, while it was 45-90% on A. arabiensis. CS-ethanol extract of at concentrations of 17.39-87.13 ppm resulted in 45-90% mortality on Cx. quinquefasciatus and 35-85% on A. arabiensis. CS-acetone extract at concentrations of 37.26-74.52 ppm resulted in 42-90% mortality on Cx. quinquefasciatus and 47-87% on A. arabiensis, while FP-acetone extract at concentrations of 76-152 ppm resulted in 37-92% mortality on Cx. quinquefasciatus and 25-90% on A. arabiensis. Some damage effects (morphological changes) were monitored on the dead larvae that subjected to the ethanol and acetone extracts, and it includes change in the larval color (to brighter color) in about 80% of dead larvae, disconnected heads in 25% of dead larvae, siphon lost in 30% of dead larvae. There were few number of swelled dead larvae (10%). The study recommends following the survived larvae till they became adults to evaluate their reproductive efficiency.