Developmental stages of tetanus vaccines and its effect on experimental animals
Ayesha Zaman, Karishma Noor, Abdul Rehman M, Salma Afridi, Muhammad Waqas, Aneeqa Iqbal, Dr. Mujaddad Ur Rehman, Madia Ayaz, Dr. Muhammad Ayub Jadoon
Clostridium tetani is a gram positive spore forming flagellated bacteria. These bacteria produce the toxin which is responsible for causing tetanus. These toxins mainly affect the neurons of infected persons causing paralysis, lockjaw and other complications. Once the toxins reached to neurons then they are not preventable. Tetanus is vaccine preventable disease i.e. the disease is controlled by vaccinating the individuals. Tetanus have high mortality rate in newborn babies therefore it is necessary to vaccinate the pregnant women by tetanus toxoid to protect the mother as well as ne born baby. Tetanus toxoids are used as vaccines for controlling tetanus the toxoids are prepared from C. tetani toxins b inactivating them by use of formalin. The toxins were extracted from C. tetani by culturing them in broth and then incubated in fermentation medium to produce the toxins. The toxins were then filtered by use of filter paper and in this study the effect of toxins were observed on mice’s by injecting to them intramuscularly. The toxin shows no affect when injected in low dose such as 0.1 micro liters but when the doses increased the symptoms starts to appear. The symptoms of toxin on mice’s were muscle spasm, paralysis and eventually death for leaving them untreatable. The toxoids prepared from these toxins were also tested on rabbits for checking its potency the vaccinated animal sera was then taken and checked the immune response i.e. antitoxins in the sera of vaccinated animals. As doses of toxoids increased the immune response appeared was high.
Ayesha Zaman, Karishma Noor, Abdul Rehman M, Salma Afridi, Muhammad Waqas, Aneeqa Iqbal, Dr. Mujaddad Ur Rehman, Madia Ayaz, Dr. Muhammad Ayub Jadoon. Developmental stages of tetanus vaccines and its effect on experimental animals. International Journal of Biology Research, Volume 1, Issue 2, 2016, Pages 32-35