Role of the p53 gene in DNA damage and human cancer
p53 is a tumor suppressor gene. Its activity stops the formation of tumors. It is also a nuclear transcription factor with a pro-apoptotic function. Most of the human cancers are associated with p53 mutation, but most commonly breast carcinoma, liver, lung and ovarian cancers are implicated by mutations in p53 gene. Mutant p53 acts as the domint- negetive inhibitor toward wild type p53.Basically p53 prevent neoplastic transformation either arrest by cell cycle or by triggering apoptosis. It initiates apoptosis if the damage to the cell is severe, thus p53 has an ability to maintain genomic integrity. Among them, 90% of mutations are detectable within the genomic region encoding the DNA binding domain of p53 and thereby mutant p53 lacks the sequence-specific transactivation ability. Thus, the DNA binding activity of p53 is connected to its tumor suppressive function. The function of p53 gene in cell called as “Guardian Of The Genome’’ may extended to a role in monitoring and repair of DNA damage in addition to direct control of cell growth and death. In the present article, i described the role of the p53 in DNA damage and human cancers.